77. The Indian attack to defence and military cooperation has been broad ranging, as is apparent from the states and parts engaged and the international military cooperation activities undertaken. The major bureaus involved in Indian international defense mechanism cooperation are the Cabinet Committee for Security ( CCS ) and National Security Council ( NSC ) assisted by the NSC Secretariat ( NSCS ) and Strategic Policy Group ( SPG ) , Ministry of External Affairs ( MEA ) , Ministry of Defence ( MoD ) , the HQ Integrated Defence Staff ( IDS ) and single Military Services ( Army, Navy and Air Force ) .

78. Credence to Military Diplomacy. The recognition for new military diplomatic negotiations goes to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who introduced new political positions, seeking a commensurate military function for India in Asian international dealingss, in maintaining with its lifting economic and political profile. As the Minster of State for Defence Pallam Raju said in 2010 at Shangri La Dialogue in Singapore, “ one of the long-run challenges for India was its willingness and ability to lend to public good. ” Hence, in the past few old ages, India has entered into defense mechanism cooperation understandings with most great powers, including China, as besides with smaller states like Malaysia and Singapore and even Mauritius. The Manmohan Singh philosophy has besides been backed by the strategic consensus, in undertaking common security menaces through concerted security along with other states.

79. Additions of Military Diplomacy. The touchable additions are already seeable. First, military diplomatic negotiations has helped in cut downing tensenesss with China and allowed the two states to research the potencies of a partnership in the emerging Asiatic security architecture. One can raise the issue of Pakistan, but that state is yet to admit the public-service corporation of military diplomatic negotiations. Second, it has allowed India to portion its ain experience and cognition with other states and learn from their experiences. Witness for illustration, Indian Ocean Naval Symposium ( IONS ) assemblages, which allowed the Indian Navy different positions on modern-day maritime security. Third, it has enabled India to guarantee enhanced policing of the next Waterss in the IOR, through sharing of intelligence with other states. Fourth, it has allowed India to keep a peaceable fringe and undertaking its power in a discreet and elusive mode, that empathies with the maritime demands and aspirations of little littoral states in the part.

80. Road Bumps to Successful Military Diplomacy. India ‘s military diplomatic negotiations is, nevertheless, non a fairy narrative narrative. First, the basket of military diplomatic negotiations is still limited to a few states, as besides limited in quality. While India ‘s late start is surely responsible for that, there has besides been some domestic ideological resistance to military exchanges with states like the USA. Often, they fail to factor in strategic advantages that accrue from such coaction. Second, India is non able to tackle military diplomatic negotiations due to the demand-supply disequilibrium with military modernization. While states like China have made considerable investings in military modernization, India lags behind. Third, India still does non hold diplomatic presence in many of the Continental states in Africa every bit good as littoral states of the IOR. Besides, India ‘s trade linkages with these states are really shallow so as to make ‘stakes ‘ for these states. Much of the military diplomatic activities are, hence, born out of understandings reached with single states, instead than being portion of a expansive scheme. Fourth, frequently external factors tend to neutralize India ‘s military diplomatic negotiations. The on-going crisis in Congo has posed a moral quandary for Indian peacekeepers, due to the outgrowth of hostile elements and a perceptible displacement towards a different authorization. Fifth, there are important participants viing with India with more resources and moneymaking footings of battle.

81. Pakistan Route. India does non prosecute in military diplomatic negotiations in any meaningful signifier with Pakistan. This is portion of the ground why India finds itself in a bind with regard to Pakistan, where it needs to prosecute the existent power Centre but finds itself with no agencies to. It is non a affair of fiting protocol, for it is non strictly military affairs that we wish to discourse with General Kayani.[ 1 ]Washington, in comparing, handles this batch better through the Af-Pak theater commanding officers, who are the primary middlemans with the Pakistan ground forces. Given that these admirals and generals are engaged in diplomatic activities of serious importance to India, it is clip for India to concentrate its military diplomatic negotiations towards Pakistan.

82. The Strengths. India has actively conducted military diplomatic negotiations since independency. The initial attempts were a combination of its colonial heritage ( Nepal and Bhutan ) , the non-aligned motion ( NAM ) , support for anti-imperialistic and anti-colonial motions ( Nigeria, Iran, Iraq, Namibia, South Africa ‘s anti-apartheid attempts, etc ) . Bhartendu Kumar Singh in his analysis of India ‘s military diplomatic negotiations[ 2 ]credits Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for the increased military diplomatic activity being undertaken by India in maintaining with its lifting economic and political profile, for undertaking common security menaces through concerted security in the part.

83. The Weaknesses. Some of the maladies are listed below: –

( a ) The over centralised attack of India ‘s bureaucratism aka Ministry of External Affairs and Ministry of Defence and a convoluted and cumbrous determination doing procedure.

( B ) Lack of a definite and structured policy and route map for prosecuting other states.

( degree Celsius ) Lack of a vision to develop a strategic grouping or associations.

( vitamin D ) A general attack within the determination devising civil order and bureaucratism where a major part of military diplomatic negotiations is considered to dwell of leveraging the economic facets of defense mechanism industry instead than relationships built on institutional and personal interactions at all degrees.

( vitamin E ) Lack of dedicated support for military diplomatic negotiations which prevents the development of a long term attack. It besides does non animate much assurance in bilateral relationships due to the attendant uncertainness.

( degree Fahrenheit ) Inordinate hold in response to any proposal by India and deficiency of transparence in blessings of events of defense mechanism cooperation consequences in batch of pyrosiss in armed forces of spouse provinces.

84. India can claim many recent successes in its attack towards international defense mechanism cooperation ; nevertheless, much more demands to be done to make conditions of peace, stableness, security for economic and societal development and to counter multinational terrorist act.

85. The Indian attack is restrictive, reactive and dispirited. The policy needs to be made more dynamic to be able to work fugitive chances and header with the exponential increased potency of defense mechanism cooperation in contending the maliciousness of multinational terrorist act.

Chapter VIII


“ Our Armed Forces maintain Service to Service dealingss with other democratic states, which comprise exchange of visits, preparation and other reciprocally beneficiai Fieldss of cooperation. These Military to Military dealingss are built-in to India ‘s diplomatic negotiations. ”

– Atal Behari Vajpayee 10th Prime Minister of India

86. States can utilize methods within the defense mechanism cooperation toolkit to contradict belligerencies within immediate and drawn-out vicinities. The usage of duologue and dialogue can pinch issues in their initial phases, forestalling drawn-out struggle.[ 3 ]In order to determine India ‘s security environment positively, the negation of menaces emerging from province or non-state histrions on its fringe is most of import. Trust edifice in this state of affairs takes on a whole new function, one which is extremely militaristic -for none of these equations can except the function of armed forces.

87. For Pakistan, this type ( Kargil and Islamic insurgence ) of low degree torment of India represents its best opportunity – albeit non a really good one – of deriving control of Kashmir. Equally long as the autochthonal insurgence is non to the full suppressed, Pakistan can back up it at a low cost to itself while enforcing a larger cost on India.

88. Over the following several old ages, India will hold the chance to cultivate stronger military ties with many SAARC and ASEAN provinces. The precedence during this

period should be to spread out military-to-military contacts and developing to help SAARC and ASEAN states with the modernization of their forces and the usage of their assets to battle illicit drug trafficking, smuggling, and buccaneering and to carry on sea monitoring, search-and-rescue, catastrophe alleviation, and human-centered operations. Since budgetary restraints have forced SAARC and ASEAN states to cut back on preparation and exercisings, rotational deployments and combined exercisings should be structured to understate the counterpart state ‘s fiscal spendings. Military instruction and preparation, equipment and preparation on friendly rates could further cooperation and interoperability among regional provinces.

89. The basic long term purpose of India has to go around around peace and security to the part and in specific South and South East Asia. The part has a bequest of territorial differences and victim of multinational terrorist act[ 4 ]. It is necessary to work earnestly for guaranting the safety of sea lanes and for forestalling multinational terrorist act.

90. The complex political constellation of the Asia-Pacific part affects the development of bilateral dealingss besides. The multi-polar and extremely unstable nature of interstate dealingss induces the chief histrions in the part to be closely alert of any alterations happening in its links, which may convey about concatenation reaction of displacements in their bases. Rapprochement between some provinces may do anxiousness among 3rd states of unfavorable alterations in the balance of forces in the part which is characterised by a multilayer construction of contradictions.

91. The Way Ahead. Real security duologue at the bilateral and regional degree means listening and making chances for enduring personal relationships. The armed forces should concentrate on security and stableness, non political or societal reform. Such attempts should acknowledge the legitimacy of different values and be the topic of a separate duologue, the chief purpose of military diplomatic negotiations attempts have to be to construct trust by clearly seeking friend or ally ‘s security. It is besides prudent to gain that till the

clip we do non prosecute the existent power Centre of Pakistan they would go on to hold a basic ‘Anti India ‘ scheme. Thus is imperative that military diplomatic battle with Pakistan are initiated and strengthened for successful bilateral cooperation. Some basic suggestions for traveling these attempts for apogee are as under: –

( a ) Strengthen bilateral and “ bunch ” cooperation in more sensitive countries harmonizing to national precedences and demands.

( B ) Find approaches to international and regional cooperation that beltway national and regional sensitivenesss.

. ( degree Celsius ) Compartmentalise counter multinational terrorist act from ordinary diplomatic negotiations, bound open/ crystalline operations.

( vitamin D ) Avoid common lists of terrorists and organisations.

( vitamin E ) Avoid doing antagonistic multinational terrorist act another forum for regional differences and contentions.

( degree Fahrenheit ) Avoid attempts to make a common definition of “ terrorist act. ”

( g ) Control financess transportations, tracking motion, etc. of terrorist administrations and their support groups.

( H ) Sharing of developing methods, defensive and response systems.

( J ) Legislation, attempts at reform and covering with causes of terrorist act,

criterions for jurisprudence and human rights.

92. Undertaking Multinational Terrorism. The menace emerging from asymmetrical warfare and multinational terrorist act are pressing quandaries which necessitate multinational cooperation. They are beyond the range of any one state and the lone manner to cover with them is by aiming terrorist bases and support systems, which permeate boundary lines. Intelligence sharing mechanisms, patroling webs and anti-terrorism mechanisms can forestall the convergence of attempts in undertaking multinational terrorist act and can construct unfailing anti-terror shield. A scope of duologue at different degrees including at armed forces degree would function to enable an apprehension of the participants ‘ concerns and set up countries of common and common involvement. These duologues should hold concrete results in the signifier of defense mechanism pacts, understandings and memorandums of apprehensions ( MoU ) .

93. Defence cooperation involves armed forces concentrating basically on arms and engineering, their tactical and strategic value, their trade and commercialism and mechanisms that guarantee the smooth operationalization of the state ‘s security policy. A proposed route map prepared with the purpose of heightening military diplomatic negotiations while guaranting that we counter multinational terrorist act is as under: –

( a ) Determining the Security Environment. The pattern of defense mechanism cooperation prepares the land for much needed security and strategic duologue in order to chase away and contradict unfriendly activities and purposes. India needs to show its military art in Fieldss of peace and security and supply a message to all states of South Asia of its benign purposes for regional security and development.

( B ) South Asiatic Cooperation of Armed Forces ( SACAF ) . For a dynamic and methodical attack to military diplomatic negotiations it is high clip that a South Asiatic defense mechanism cooperation group/ forum be established, may be on the lines of NATO. India needs to be the instigator for same and work out modes in coaction with other states. The purpose of SACAF could be to ease and commit military diplomatic negotiations in South Asia to counter menaces of sub conventional nature, particularly multinational terrorist act besides other facets of military cooperation.

( degree Celsius ) Equipment, Technology and Trade. Another major aim of

defense mechanism cooperation to counter multinational terrorist act is to construct trust. Trust

shortage can be countered by heightening trade and exchange of defense mechanism related

goods and services. Whether it is weaponry or engineering, transportations through

military assistance, or through defense mechanism gross revenues and aid in development of defense mechanism infrastructural development. India would derive vastly by increasing its influence by helping other states of South Asia.

( vitamin D ) Defence Interoperability. It is imperative to advance interoperability between the armed forces of the SACAF ( South Asian Cooperation of Armed Forces ) including Indian Armed Forces. The demand for interoperability is most of import for joint operations and edifice trust ; nucleus ingredients for countering multinational terrorist act. A instance in point is the illustration of NATO forces.

( vitamin E ) Human Resource Interaction. Professional personal contacts at all degrees would function to make a better apprehension of each armed force and its several place. This would farther the Bridgess of common belief and assurance. Military chumminess is legendary – taking that from the council chamber into the battleground is of import and this can be achieved merely by prosecuting armed forcess in individual to individual contact with each other. The more defense mechanism forces interact with each other, higher the opportunities of them wining at interoperability.

( degree Fahrenheit ) Restructuring Inter Institutional Interactions. The present degree of inter institutional interaction is manner below the needed degree. This can be achieved by increasing the interface within the armed forces, on one manus, and within concerned subdivisions of the assorted ministries involved in blessings of same. It is besides of import to hold complementarity in the security policies of assorted international administrations.

( g ) Anti Transnational Terrorism Group ( ATTG ) . A sub group of SACAF needs to be developed as ATTG. This group should hold the undertaking for being in changeless communicating with designated representatives, form regular meetings and carry out activities as recommended below: –

( I ) Military conferences to understand policy and land

demands of other armed forces of the group.

( two ) Joint boundary line interactions and meetings to increase common trust

between land military personnels.

( three ) Joint maritime patrol and surveillance to supervise sea lanes of

communicating and Exclusive Economic Zones ( EEZs ) .

( four ) Joint human-centered aid and catastrophe alleviation ( HADR )

programme for planning and aid to each other. This would besides

aid in speedy alleviation non merely during natural catastrophe but besides during

terrorist act related catastrophes.

( V ) Joint anti-terrorism exercisings at bilateral degree and advancement

later to multi-lateral exercisings.

( six ) Joint seminars, conferences, symposia to germinate a joint philosophy

and methodological analysis to contend multinational terrorist act.

( seven ) Military athleticss exchange and events to increase trust and


( eight ) Joint escapade activities at local and cardinal degrees to showcase

all participant armed forces and develop common strong belief.

( nine ) Joint developing events to increase human resource capacity of

spouse members.

( ten ) Material aid for a cohesive response to transnational

terrorist act.

( xi ) Exchange of think armored combat vehicles to place future menaces and counsel to patrol and Para Military Forces.

94. Overall Recommendation. In the absence of wherewithal to contend a sustained conventional war, derivates have been found in low strength struggle, sub-conventional warfare, asymmetric warfare and the similar. The bottom line is an effort to make instability in states that are looked upon as enemies by playing the spiritual card, which facilitates engagement of materialistic elements. To further this aim, one avenue that is yet unexplored and which could harvest long term consequences is military diplomatic negotiations. The concerned states could seek to travel beyond the deadlocks of their diplomatic corps to make a military to military contact which is aimed at cut downing the trust shortage. This could be done by researching constructs of interoperability and trust.

95. Battle of Pakistan. All said and done, it is Pakistan on whom India needs to pass maximal clip and attempt towards creative activity of diplomatic infinite to turn to the emotion driven ideological divide. Military diplomatic negotiations would besides help in reaching the ‘Power Centre ‘ in Pakistan, which till now has non been addressed by Indian diplomatic corps. Ways and agencies have to be found by both states to cut down the trust shortage. Most significantly, an confidence has to be projected that despite its military might, which is basically a planetary geo-strategic demand, India does non keep unfriendly designs on Pakistan ; a tall order but one which is accomplishable albeit with a long drawn out and painstaking attempt.

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