The function of school in adequately fixing pupils for the invariably altering conditions of modern life ( societal, professional, personal ) has been a concern for many research workers, pedagogues and parents ( Frangos, 2006 ; Xanthakou & A ; Kaila, 2002 ; Schirrmacher, 1998 ; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996 ; Torrance, 1987 ; Dellas & A ; Gaier, 1970 ) . The importance that is given or should be given in schools on the development of originative thought has been studied with peculiar involvement in the recent old ages. Although the demand for originative thought in modern society is theoretically supported, few are the extended research attacks that have taken topographic point in Greece. Research Fieldss in Greece concern chiefly: the design and execution of plans heightening originative thought ( Vitoulis, 2005 ; Xanthakou, 1998 ) , the influence of external factors such as gender, geographic part and socio-economic degree in the development of creativeness ( Marmarinos, 1978 ) and the connexion between school public presentation and originative public presentation ( Nima, 2002 ) .
The current research originated from the demand to broaden the limited research in kindergartens, to heighten kids ‘s originative thought ability and transform it into a accomplishment. In international research degree, definitions of creativeness vary depending on the country of involvement ( art, scientific discipline, societal ) , the degree, the manner and the manner it is expressed.
The degree of creativeness, ranges from the potentially originative competency of all people, it continues as manifestation in mundane activities, which Boden ( 1994 ) refers to as p-creativity ( person-creativity ) , and reaches its manifestation as a particular endowment, h-creativity ( history-creativity ) . Similarly to p-creativity, Craft ( 2001b ) and Beghetto & A ; Kaufman ( 2007 ) used the term c-creativity. In NACCCE Report ( NACCCE, 1999 ; Craft, 2001a ) the phrase “ democratic creativeness ” was introduced to bespeak the creativeness of the ordinary individual as it can be found in day-to-day life ‘s activities. Treffinger ( 2009 ) highlighted that is non merely the degree of creativeness ( how originative are you? ) that varies but besides the manner of creativeness ( how are you originative? ) . Under this construct research workers attempted to separate creativeness types. Taylor ( 1959 ) proposed the being of five types for creativeness: expressive, productive, imaginative, advanced, and emerge native, whereas Unsworth ( 2001 ) refers to four types: responsive, expected, contributory and proactive. Mentioning to the ways creativeness can be expressed, Treffinger et Al. ( 2002: 13-15 ) suggest that it may either be demonstrated through a certain action that leads to a originative result, or it may merely be but non yet be apparent, as a originative potency.
Adopting a definition of creativeness in current research ab initio led to the aggregation of findings from related surveies. The reappraisal was based on creativeness research workers such as Csikszentmihalyi ( 2009 ) , Sawyer ( 2006 ) , Craft ( 2000 ) , Sternberg ( 1999 ) , Amabile ( 1996 ) , Torrance et Al. ( 1990 ) and Guilford ( 1967 ) in the international sphere, and Vitoulis ( 2005 ) , Nima ( 2002 ) and Xanthakou ( 1998 ) in Greece. Investigating creativeness most research workers chiefly follow three different lines of attack mentioning to the:
originative individual ( Ganios, 2006 ; Nima 2002 ; Xanthakou, 1998 ; Kirton, 1994 ; Torrance 1966c ; Csikszentmihalyi & A ; Getzels, 1973 ) ,
originative merchandise ( Sawyer, 2006 ; Nima, 2002 ; Craft, 2000 ; Balkin, 1990 ; Clark, 1986 ; Besemer & A ; Quin ‘s, 1986 ; Amabile, 1982 ) ,
originative procedure ( Wallas as quoted in Running, 2008: 42 ; Sabelli & A ; Abouzeid, 2003 ; Kessler, 2000 ; Craft, 2000: 32-33 ; Gordon as quoted in Xanthakou, 1998: 99 ; Finke et al. , 1992 ) .
These different attacks demonstrate the interrelatednesss among the creative-person, the creative-product and the creative-process under certain societal and civilization context. Sing these interrelatednesss in this research, creativeness is defined as the combination of the bing experiences with the accomplishments, attitudes, involvements and foible of people ( all features of originative people ) , who through this procedure ( originative procedure ) may take to bring forth new and utile thoughts ( originative merchandise ) . The originative procedure and originative merchandise can non be isolated from the features of originative persons and are alone to each individual. Therefore, creativeness refers to an unconditioned inclination of a individual, whose features can be identified and its development is possible through proper processs.
Seeking for a definition of creativeness features Torrance et Al. ( 1990: 1 ) uses the term of “ originative thought abilities ” as the configuration of generalised mental activities that may be normally identified in originative accomplishments. Therefore, throughout the current survey, creativeness will be described in footings of originative thought. Guilford ( 1950 ) was the first to do a differentiation between divergent and convergent thought. Associating divergent believing with originative thought he provided a theoretical land for the development of creativeness rating. More specifically he emphasized in four basic features of originative thought, sing them as the basic appraisal standards for originative thought. Depending on the lens through which other research workers investigate originative believing a assortment of different or extra standards were used in their surveies in order to measure creativeness. Whitehead ( as quoted in Sabelli & A ; Abouzeid, 2003: 18 ) high spots that creative thought is characterized by diverseness, invention and continuity. Howe et Al. ( 2001: 5 ) argued that originative thought contains a figure of characteristics, such as motive, continuity, involvement and competition. Poincare ( as quoted in Sawyer, 1999: 449 ) notes that when seeking to work out a job originative thought lies on using flexible, alone and non-formalized combinations.
Even though different attacks generate different standards for appraisal of originative thought, surveies of Guilford ( 1967 ) , Williams ( 1972 ) and Xanthakou ( 1998 ) show common points and are based on the usage of same standards which are:
eloquence, the ability of bring forthing a figure of comparative responses,
flexibleness, the ability of happening alternate thoughts and multidimensional attacks,
originality, the ability of bring forthing infrequent thoughts and alone responses,
amplification, the ability of forming and including inside informations in a response.
“ Everybody has the possible to be originative, but non everyone fulfills that possible ” ( Runco, 2007: 40 ) . In visible radiation of the above statement many surveies ( Hosseini & A ; Watt, 2010 ; Bidri, 2005 ; Sternberg, 2003 ) have been conducted in order to look into how creativity potency can be taught and nurtured through instruction. In pre-school instruction research workers ( Howard-Jones et al. , 2002 ; Russ et al. , 1999 ; Tarnowski, 1999 ) emphasized the nexus between drama and originative thought. Janjolo and Stamp ( as quoted in Morin, 2001: 25 ) have besides noted the similarities of drama and music, bespeaking that both have symbolic and lawful nature, are meaningful and active. Furthermore research workers ( Niland, 2009 ; Smithrim, 1997 & A ; Littleton, 1991 as quoted in Morin, 2001 ) have suggested the educational value of music drama in kids ‘s originative thought. Sing all the above, this survey endeavoured to reply the undermentioned research inquiries:
Can a plan of educational intercessions, which is based on music and motion activities, aid develop originative thought in preschool kids?
Which behaviours or originative abilities have a higher degree of betterment as a consequence of these educational intercessions?
How could we reform the course of study in kindergartens in order to make conditions that promote the development of kids ‘s originative thought and originative behaviors?
Sing that activation and encouragement of originative thought may be possible in a originative acquisition environment, the aim of this research was to set up in a research degree, the dealingss between originative thought of kindergartners and music and motion activities in order to find whether and to what extent this sort of activities help to develop creativeness.
Early on childhood research workers acknowledge non merely the importance of drama in advancing kids development ( Slade & A ; Wolf, 1994 ; Singer & A ; Singer, 1990 ) but besides in furthering kids creativeness ( Russ et al. , 1999 ; Balke, 1997 ) . More specifically, using the drama theory to musical instruction Professor Swanwick ( 1988 ) suggested dealingss between major drama facets and musical activities. Play-based and child-centred attacks to music instruction are regarded as cardinal philosophical and methodological constructs of Karl Orff ‘s and I•mil Dalcroze ‘s procedure. Orff and Dalcroze emphasizes the connexion of music with beat and motion, therefore musical drama and kinesthetic drama are used in their preparation plans ( Niland, 2009 ) . In our survey the following techniques were used:
the usage of percussion instruments
music reading and authorship.
Then a comprehensive plan of educational intercessions for kindergartners was designed to research the hypothesis that music and motion activities enhance the positive features of originative thought, such as eloquence, flexibleness, originality and amplification and besides some declarative originative behavior of kids.
The behaviors were selected by reexamining relevant researches ( Segal, 2001 ; Polland, 1994 ; Torrance, 1965 ) , refering the features of originative persons, based on the ability to observe and mensurate them by their kindergarten instructors and the research worker. These behaviors referred to: dedication to a end, inclination for geographic expedition and experimentation-curiosity, assurance, imaginativeness, disputing the commonly accepted-non conventionality and freedom to show thoughts, ideas and feelings.
To command the research inquiries we have applied the experimental method of research. At first a plan of 16 educational intercessions was designed based on music and motion activities. The anchor was the originative thought and the intercessions plan was considered as an consequence factor. Following, two groups of kindergarten kids were selected, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group attended the aid plan for three months while the control group did non take part in it. To keep internal cogency, the control group shared common characteristics with the experimental group ( age, socio-economic background and geographic part ) . In add-on, dual rating was applied in both groups harmonizing to Campbell and Stanley ( 1963 ) ( before and after the experiment ) , and the consequences were compared in order to pull out the decisions of the research.
The experiment was conducted in a public kindergarten in a suburban country of Greece. There were two categories runing in the kindergarten and the choice of the experimental squad was random. The two groups showed several marks of homogeneousness in footings of age and figure and besides in the per centum between the two sexes. More specifically, the control group was composed of 18 kids ( 13 male childs and 5 misss ) , while the experimental was composed of 15 kids ( 11 male childs and 4 misss ) . Children in both groups were 5 old ages old. It should be noted that the two categories were under the same roof, therefore the stimulation by the course of study, such as educational plans, Tourss, jubilations and more, and the mundane conditions and wonts, such as utilizing common countries and games during intervals, were fundamentally common. At the same clip the fact that all kids lived in the same country allowed us to see that the differences due to socio-cultural factors between the two groups were minor.
Even if research workers agree that creativeness is developed in a discontinuous, non-linear mode, either described as “ peep and slacks ” by Runco ( 1999 ) or as “ U-shaped ” creativeness by Gargen ( as quoted in Baer, 1996: 927 ) , most of them suggest that preschool kids express high degree of creativeness as they have n’t yet entered the province of conformance ( Claxton & A ; Pannells, 2005 ) . As originative thought is a accomplishment which needs clip to be developed, it is better to reenforce it at an early phase and go on beef uping it on a regular basis at older ages.
The continuance of the experimental plan respected the operating capablenesss of the kindergarten so that the course of study and the activities would non be affected. The experiment began in January and completed in May. In peculiar, the first hebdomads were used to carry on all the pre-tests to measure the degree of creativeness in both groups. Afterwards, the educational intercessions were applied twice a hebdomad for a three months period. A sum of 16 intercessions were applied of 45-60 proceedingss each. Upon completion of the plan both squads were evaluated with the post-test. The trials used in the 2nd measuring were the same in construct, construction and nature of activities as the pre-tests, but differed in their content.
Development of informations aggregation methods
Due to the complex and multidimensional nature of creativeness the appraisal can non be considered dependable and efficient if it is based merely on one measuring instrument ( Treffinger et al. , 2002 ) . Subsequently, to increase the dependability and cogency of the research it was decided to utilize different and complementary research tools in order to triangulate the consequences and explicate them in holistic mode. Triangulation allows the combination of different degrees of analysis ( Cohen & A ; Manion, 1994 ) for detailed control of the variables and designation of extra dealingss which occur dynamically during the experiment. Current research used the undermentioned research tools:
observation programs, and
Torrance ‘s Trials of Creative Thinking ( TTCT ) are based on the cryptography and quantification of replies given by the pupils. They emerge as a consequence from Guilford ‘s theoretical account of intelligence every bit good as from that of Williams and do non mention to the measuring of creativeness but to the appraisal and diagnosing of the possibility to bring forth originative believing non in a specific sector but in a wider context ( Torrance, 1966c ) .
These are the most common standardised and balanced trials in which originative thought is characterized by the eloquence, flexibleness, originality and amplification of thoughts ( Guilford, 1975: 37-43 ) . The trials have been checked in different people, in footings of age, socio-cultural background and gender, for over a period of about 25 old ages, corroborating the internal cogency of the variables, the hiting method of the responses and the appraisal of the consequences ( Kyung-Hee, 2006 ; Kerr & A ; Gagliardi, 2003 ) . They provide a footing for making other trials and are applicable in the preschool age. TTCT trials have besides been adapted for the appraisal of originative thought in music and have been applied in Vaughan ‘s & A ; Myers ‘ ( 1971 ) and Webster ‘s ( 1983, 1987 ) trials ( as quoted in Kiehn, 2003 ) .
There are two types of Torrance trials, TTCT-Figural and TTCT-Verbal and each of them has two analogue signifiers A and B. As the signifiers A and B contain similar activities, in the current survey form A was used for the pre-test and signifier B was used for the post-test. Figural trials consist of three activities:
image completion, and
repeated figures of lines or circles.
The activities of verbal trials refer to:
ask and conjecture,
unusual inquiries, and
The variables used as standards for evaluation the public presentation of kids in the trials were the four features of originative thought. The method of hiting variables was based on proposals by Torrance ( 1966a, 1966b, 1974a, 1974b ) and the public presentation consequences were recorded by the research worker on single pupil record sheets.
The dynamic nature of originative thought development and the guess of originative individual as an germinating entity highlight the demand to roll up information over clip instead than single minutes. For this ground participative observation of kids was chosen as a 2nd research tool during the educational intercessions in order to reply the first two research inquiries. An observation program was structured that referred to both the features of originative thought and originative behaviors to be identified during the class of intercessions. The appraisal of behavior was made utilizing leaden evaluation graduated table ( Treffinger et al. , 2002: 59-62 ) to quantify the observations. The four subdivisions ( non-evident yet, emerging, showing, stand outing ) reflect the degree of studied behavior, bespeaking the grade of its acquisition or its adulthood. The program besides included a field in which the research worker could enter some extra observations to get to extra qualitative readings. The program played a “ retroactive ” function, since the research worker ‘s extra remarks were used as agencies of partial rating of educational intercessions supplying information on possible betterments.
The demand to compare the end product consequences with the consequences from another research tool has led us to utilize the interviews at the beginning and at the terminal of the intercessions, as a primary tool to roll up the sentiments of the kindergarten instructors. The interviews were semi-structured and consisted of unfastened and closed inquiries, which were simple and specific ( Oppenheim, 1992: 155 ) to guarantee a high grade of dependability and truth of consequences and to minimise the look of personal sentiment of the participants. At first, the unfastened inquiries detected how preschoolers perceive:
the originative nature of each kid,
the originative procedure,
the back uping factors, and
the restrain factors on the look of originative idea.
Then, through closed inquiries preschoolers assessed creativeness based on specific standards, prioritised the originative behaviors and assessed the whole category on a leaden scaling graduated table ( non-evident yet, emerging, showing, stand outing ) , before and after the educational intercessions. Aiming to bring forth comparable consequences, the pick of variables ( originative behavior ) every bit good as the measuring graduated table was common with that of the observation program. In this manner the responses of kindergarten instructors were able to be collected in the signifier of quantitative informations and to be farther analyzed through comparing with the corresponding quantitative consequences of the observation program.
Development of educational programme
The design of educational intercessions was based on basicss and rules used in other educational plans that have been developed to advance creativeness ( Xanthakou & A ; Kaila, 2002 ; Santanen et al. , 1999 ; Xanthakou, 1998 ) . To be effectual, the instruction intercessions aiming creativeness took topographic point in an environment that encouraged freedom of look, provided chances for development of personal enterprise and psychological safety ( Leonidou, 2005: 55 ) . In add-on, recommendations, orientation of idea, premature unfavorable judgment and rating of kids thoughts, were prevented ( Xanthakou, 1998 ) . As highlighted by Amabile ( 1982 ) , in educational intercessions we should seek to trip the interior motive every bit good as the demand to allow sufficient clip to kids to be able to show all their thoughts. Harrington ( 1990 ) regards all these conditions that encourage and stimulate originative thoughts under the term of “ Creative Ecosystem ” .
All the above can be achieved, as suggested by Torrance ( as quoted in Ogletree, 1996: 3 ) , when during the originative instruction:
all inquiries and thoughts of kids have value and are treated with regard,
the look of any unusual thoughts is encouraged,
clip is given for leisure activities,
the automatic rating is absent
The construction of educational intercessions was developed into four thematic countries:
1st country: Sound ( chant coloring material, silence, pitch, kineticss, executing manner ) ;
2nd country: Rhythm ( rhythmic values, rhythmic sense of closing, designation, composing, improvisation and public presentation of different rhythmic forms ) ;
3rd country: Tune ( upward and downward motion of the tune, construction and signifier of a tune ) ;
fourth country: Combination ( melody quality features, rhythmic and melodious fluctuations, aesthetic attack to the beat, sound and melodious patterns-energy ) ;
and moved in three axes:
the activation of cognition accomplishments ( musical constructs ) ,
the activation of emotional accomplishments through identifying and showing personal thoughts, kids ‘s feelings and temper, and
the prohibition of usual ways of thought.
More specifically, in the first axe, activities were used to heighten heuristic way to knowledge, to the procedure of job resolution, the self-generated production of many thoughts, the free association eloquence, the analytical and man-made ability, the callback of anterior cognition, informations processing and operation to accomplish a end. In the 2nd axe, the look of emotional accomplishments and attitudes was fostered through the procedure of role-playing, improvisation, imitation, argument and by and large through the emotional behavior in the schoolroom. The 3rd axe, which is built-in in the two old 1s, provided activities that were based on get the better ofing conventional thought and stimulated the production of self-generated and emotional tempers that are beyond the ordinary.
The construction of the intercessions, as respects the signifier of some activities and the manner they are organized over the class of clip, has repeatability and general uniformity. This aims to make an environment of security for the kid where it can easy project thoughts and feelings. More specifically, each intercession began either with introductory activities during which indirect mentions to the issue of intercession were made or with a short repeat of some old experience that could be used. The last 10 proceedingss of the activities were devoted to stage dancings or motion improvisations and besides to treatments in a circle with the technique of brainstorming. In this manner already obtained accomplishments could come to flawlessness, the generalisation of experience was allowed and the keeping of memory was facilitated. These intercessions were concluded with several proceedingss of relaxation.
Although the plan followed some specific schemes, its construction and application were carried out under a flexible model that allowed dynamic accommodation and divergence from the original design. While the thematic axe was specific in each intercession, the development of some activities was adjusted in conformity with kids thoughts and enterprises that had a regulator function in the acquisition procedure.
Consequences of conventional trials
Following Torrance ‘s conventional trial manuals ( 1966a, 1974a ) , in the consequences of the pre-test ( see Table 1 ) the variable with the highest norm for the experimental group ( I•G ) and control group ( CG ) was the amplification. Furthermore, in both groups the highest maximal value was observed in amplification, while the lower minimal value was recorded in flexibleness. By and large, both groups showed a similarity as respects the variables in inquiry, which was found with the usage of t-test for independent samples. The pre-test did non uncover statistically important differences when comparing the average value of originality ( t=-1.266 ) , amplification ( t=-1.717 ) , eloquence ( t=-1.974 ) and flexibleness ( t=-0.959 ) between the two groups. In peculiar, since P & gt ; 0.05, we accept the void hypothesis that the two groups demonstrated about equal degree of originative thought in the pre-test.
Upon completion of intercessions the consequences of the post-test for both groups were the undermentioned ( see Table 2 ) :
Harmonizing to Table 2 the public presentation of pupils in the experimental group improved as compared with those of the control group pupils and with their ain public presentation before the intercessions. Specifically, the parametric paired Samples t-test showed a statistically important difference in the average value of eloquence ( t=-2.28 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) , flexibleness ( t=-7.33 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) , originality ( t=-6.041 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) and amplification ( t=-3.145 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) for the experimental group before and after the research worker ‘s intercessions. So we can follow the alternate premise that the average value of these variables is different ( and bigger ) after the intercessions. On the contrary, there was no statistically important difference in the values of eloquence ( t=-1.808 ; P & gt ; 0.05 ) , flexibleness ( t=-1.991 ; P & gt ; 0.05 ) and amplification ( t=-1.495 ; P & gt ; 0.05 ) in the pre-and post-test control group, except from the values of originality ( t=-5.992 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) , a consequence that leads to the premise that intercessions can take to the betterment of originality but non identified as necessary.
Sing the equality of the variable ‘s average values between the two groups, although before the intercessions they were at the same degree, at the terminal of the experiment statistically important differences were found in the average values of eloquence ( t=-2.763 ) , flexibleness ( t=-3380 ) , originality ( t=-2.247 ) and amplification ( t=-2.134 ) . Therefore, the intercessions contributed to the variegation of ab initio same degrees of variables between the two groups.
Seeking a deeper analysis of the consequences, for the overall appraisal of the alteration of creativeness, we explored, utilizing the Pearson correlativity coefficient, the relationship between the four features of originative thought ( see Table 3 ) .
Overall correlativity coefficients between alterations in variables are non statistically important ( p & gt ; 0.05 ) . For illustration, increasing the amplification is non associated with an addition of originality, eloquence and flexibleness. The lone statistically important correlativity coefficient comes out for the variables eloquence and flexibleness in the control group. Specifically, an addition in eloquence is accompanied by an addition in flexibleness in the control group
Consequences of unwritten trials
The appraisal manuals of Torrance verbal trials ( 1966b and 1974b ) supply a balanced manner of measuring kids responses sing the four variables. We investigated whether there is statistically important difference in these variables utilizing the statistical map t-test for mated samples. The consequences showed statistically important difference in the average value of eloquence ( t=-3.704 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) at the terminal of intercessions for the experimental group. Therefore consecutive intercessions helped better the public presentation of eloquence.
Besides, the consequences of statistical analysis in the experimental group revealed improved flexibleness sing the alternate utilizations and the possible readings of objects and state of affairss and the thoughts for covering with hypothetical/imaginary state of affairss. However, there was no betterment in flexibleness refering the premise of causes and the premise of effects/results.
Significant difference between pre-test and post-test was found besides for originality ( t=-5.8 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) and amplification ( t=-9.32 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) in the experimental group. On the contrary, these several measurings in the control group indicated no statistically important difference between pre-test and post-test.
Consequences of the observation program
Upon completion of the observation program the volume of informations recorded was rather big because they were mentioning to the province of each variable in each intercession. The processing of the observation program records focused on the per centum alteration of each degree ( non yet apparent, emerging, showing and stand outing ) during the intercessions for each ascertained variable. Such a processing allowed observation program records to be used efficaciously without taking to helter-skelter consequences.
More specifically, although the per centum alteration of eloquence for each degree is non additive, the overall alteration underlines a really important addition in eloquence in the experimental group. During the intercessions the high proportion of pupils ( 67 % ) non demoing eloquence features ( non yet apparent ) was minimized ( 7 % ) . At the same clip, the maximal degree of eloquence ( first-class ) in the first intercession is found merely in the 8 % of the kids, while in the last 1 it occurs in the 58 % of the pupils, i.e. in the largest portion of the squad.
The horizontal axis of Graph 1 shows the educational intercessions, while the perpendicular shows the per centum of pupils in the experimental group related to eloquence.
In the same manner, Graph 2, 3 and 4 show the per centum alteration of the other features of originative thought ( flexibleness, originality and amplification ) for each degree and each intercession. In Graph 2 we distinguish that flexibleness was bit by bit increasing during the intercessions in a lower rate than eloquence. It should be noted the addition in the per centum of pupils whose flexibleness was assessed as apparent.
Graph 3 shows a lower grade of stableness compared to the old variables in the degree and the manner in which pupils expressed with originality. In all, originality is increased, giving different rates of pupils without additive continuity for each level/stage and intercession.
Graph 4 shows the per centum alteration of pupils in footings of amplification in all degrees. By and large there is an addition in the per centum of pupils in higher degrees, more apparent in the 3rd one, in which the amplification is evident.
In the same regard, entering, hiting, show and analysis of charts was besides produced for the undermentioned three originative behaviors:
freedom of look,
inclination for geographic expedition and experimentation,
disputing the normally accepted.
These behaviors were selected following the interviews with kindergarten instructors, who ranked the most of import originative behaviors. Specifically, during the intercession a important addition was observed in freedom of look, from 8 % to 68 % for the experimental group. Furthermore, the per centum of pupils whose freedom of look was characterized as non yet apparent, was decreased from 72 % to 28 % .
In the experimental group, pupils ‘ willingness to take part in experimentation and geographic expedition activities increased during the intercessions, and the per centum of the “ non yet apparent ” degree was set to zero.
Finally, to dispute the normally recognized important per centum alteration was found in the “ rising ” degree from 8 % to 40 % .
Consequences from the interviews with kindergarten instructors
As shown in Table 4, comparative analysis of the kindergarten instructors ‘ responses after the educational intercessions in both groups produce better consequences for the experimental group. The behavior in which the experimental group shows high quality are:
freedom of look,
ego assurance, and
The appraisal of unfastened inquiries points out a general sense in covering with creativeness by the kindergarten instructors, which seems to be influenced by the personality of the instructor and the deficiency of preparation in the field of creativeness. Because of these influences, the features that are rewarded and reinforced during the originative instruction are different depending on the instructor. At this point comes out the elaborate geographic expedition of the demand for kindergarten instructors ‘ preparation on schemes and ways of measuring originative thought and behavior.
The fact that none of the kindergarten instructors indicates the importance of the educational procedure in the development of originative thought is peculiarly interesting. On the contrary, consequences of Hosseini & A ; Watt ( 2010 ) provided basic grounds that teacher professional development plans associated with the improved apprehension of creativity-oriented techniques can do a positive part to the development of pupils ‘ creativeness. Therefore, kindergarten instructors ‘ position on whether originative instruction is a end of educational pattern should be investigated in a larger population, and be taken into history in the execution of educational plans aimed at heightening creativeness.
Finally, it is typical the manner that preschoolers manage the kid ‘s inclination to move non harmonizing to the norm, handling it as a menace to the educational procedure and non as a mark of enterprise and creativeness.
Decisions on the features of originative thought
The comparing of pre and station trial of Torrance ( conventional and verbal ) , highlights the positive impact of intercessions on the public presentation of pupils in the experimental group. The control group get downing from the same degree of creativeness with the experimental group, with the exclusion of originality, did non demo a statistically important addition of the features of originative thought.
Refering the eloquence, the consequences of both Torrance ‘s trials and of the observation program agree that eloquence degree additions at the terminal of the experiment. But the rate of the addition seems to change harmonizing to the research measuring tool. More specifically, the analysis of the conventional trials indicates a limited addition in eloquence, perchance due to the preset figure of drawings kids are asked to plan during the trial ( the construction of pre-and station trials is limited to ten drawings and does non let the recording of more thoughts in order to detect a possible addition in eloquence ) . This reading is verified by the several public presentations of kids in the verbal trial, where there is no preset figure of responses. Furthermore, the addition in eloquence is more apparent in the analysis of the observation programs, due to the fact that kids seem to be more willing and happen it easier to bring forth many thoughts during their engagement in educational intercessions than during the trial. In this context, the back uping function of the group, the conditions and educational techniques ( for illustration, the brainstorming technique ) in bring forthing thoughts could originate as a conjectural correlativity, but needs confirmation.
Therefore, the alteration of eloquence seems to change depending on the nature of the research tool used for appraisal. This was besides revealed in the findings of Han et Al. ( 2003 ) survey where low correlativity between TTCT trial and NSNO ( Nebraska Starry Night Observation ) observation tool was demonstrated on the appraisal of eloquence.
Refering flexibleness, the consequences of conventional trials show the positive impact of educational intercessions. The same decision emerges from the consequences of verbal trials, with the exclusion of the activity focused on the hunt for possible causes and effects of a state of affairs, where the addition in flexibleness was non statistically important. Alternatively, an increasing flexibleness was observed in the verbal trials that refer to alternate solutions and covering with a state of affairs. This addition is likely due to the educational intercessions that were implemented which referred to alternate utilizations of mundane objects, musical constructs, musical instruments etc. Therefore, although flexibleness was increased, it seems to be affected, every bit much as eloquence by the usage of appropriate preparation techniques.
Seeking a more elaborate analysis of the above consequences, we investigated the correlativity between the creativeness variables because the single analysis of each variable could take to misdirecting or superficial decisions. In peculiar, Torrance ( 1966c ) when mentioning to eloquence, which has been considered as the most of import factor of originative thought ( Han et al. , 2003 ; Runco, 1991 ) , notes that the addition of eloquence does non ever lead to creativeness, since it could ensue from self-generated ideas or responses of kids and therefore it has to be associated with the other variables. Furthermore, sing flexibleness, he indicates that its “ existent ” addition is shown chiefly by the flexibility/discretion ratio ( 1966c ) . In this research this is validated by the conventional trials where flexibleness is increased while the addition in eloquence is limited.
The opposite consequences are extracted by the observation plans where there is an addition of both variables with a noteworthy addition in eloquence. These different findings may uncover kids ‘s inclination to easy show their creativeness during the educational procedure through a big figure of ideas and responses, and besides the fact that eloquence is more easy identifiable and mensurable in a context of participatory observation than flexibleness.
About originality, a statistically important addition is indicated by the trials in both groups. It is hence inferred that originality additions as a consequence of the overall adulthood and experience of the kid. Therefore, our research premise about the positive part of educational intercessions to increasing originality is non ab initio verified. However, the fact that the originality/fluency ratio in the control group varies significantly, while the matching ratio in the experimental group is stable, indicates that the existent originality is increased in the experimental group.
The consequences of the observation program show an overall development of originality in the experimental group. There is besides an unstable alteration in the per centum of pupils in assorted degrees of originality, which does non look so strongly in the old variables ( eloquence, flexibleness ) . This instability is likely to bespeak that the grade and manner of look of originality does non increase in a additive manner, but is strongly influenced by exogenic factors ( likely the type of intercessions or instructor ‘s temper ) and endogenous factors ( such as kids ‘s temper ) .
About amplification, trial consequences showed a statistically important addition in the experimental group but non in the control group. There were pupils in the experimental group who increased their amplification and eloquence by showing their competency to rapidly bring forth and finish thoughts and besides their ability to concentrate on a end. Yet, there were pupils whose public presentation on amplification was reduced while their eloquence was increased. This was demonstrated as trouble in remaining concentrated and dedicated to a end or as increased willingness to seek anything different or as low willingness to take part in this trial, by seeking to finish their drawings as rapidly and merely as possible.
However, the coincident addition in eloquence and amplification is non a sufficient index of originative idea and needs to be accompanied by a corresponding addition in the other variables as good. Harmonizing to the research worker ‘s extra records during the participative observation, pupils who had trouble in bring forthing original thoughts insisted on honing their ain thought. For illustration, seeking to do their pulling “ to be particular ” they were utilizing many complementary elements by increasing in this manner their public presentation in amplification.
Finally, efforts to construe the deficiency of correlativities between the features of originative thought, leads to a assortment of combinations each of which could hold more than one reading. These readings are multiplied if we consider the rubrics given by kids to the activity related to the completion of a drawing ( conventional trial ) , which although they were ab initio considered as extra information of low research value, at the terminal they revealed interesting characteristics, such as:
a kid ‘s thought is non ever apparent in the design ( particularly in this age ) , and hence, the kid ‘s verbal description is necessary to measure the undertaking ;
the reading of a rubric is unfastened to multiple attacks and therefore it should be combined with other elements identified about the kid.
Consequently, increased creativeness is non apparent in the same manner in all people. As ascertained, other kids express it easier verbally and other schematically. In this context, Rose and Lin ( 1984: 5-50 ) refer to the double nature of creativeness as a effect of the different ways it is expressed. Therefore, one-sided reading of the relationships among the features of originative thought does non give us the possibility of generalised readings unless the specific features of each pupil are considered.
Decisions on the originative behavior
Creative behaviors do non guarantee creativeness, but they are an indicant of possible originative thought. The decisions of originative behaviors concern the undermentioned three behaviors, as selected based on the grade of importance provided by the preschoolers ( during the interviews ) :
freedom of look ;
inclination for geographic expedition and experimentation ;
disputing the normally accepted.
Harmonizing to the consequences of participative observation, there was an addition of kids ‘s freedom of look during the intercessions. Noteworthy is the addition found in the highest degree ( stand outing ) , proposing the effortless, self-sustained kid ‘s demand for look. This observation is verified by the kindergarten instructors ‘ position in the experimental group at the terminal of the intercessions. Freedom of look seems to be reinforced through activities of motion improvisation, free motion and treatments in the circle. Overall, the support of group kineticss, communicating and emotional interaction with their schoolmates, creates an ambiance of joy and assurance in kids which enhance the self-generated and free look. In add-on, several pupils who were ab initio loath either to take up functions in the group ( such as to be the leaders or music directors ) or to show their work ( one of their drawings ) to their schoolmates, during the intercessions they overcame this vacillation and began to seek functions and by and large chances to show themselves.
Comparing the responses of kindergarten instructors about the scope of freedom of look before and after the intercessions, it was noted that it was increased in both groups but in different graduated tables. The addition was bigger in the experimental group as a consequence of the educational intercessions implemented in it.
The inclination of pupils to research and experiment was besides increased during the intercessions. During the last three intercessions, there was no pupil in the experimental group whose will for experimentation and geographic expedition was marked by the research worker as non evident. This tendency came as a effect of kids ‘s acquaintance with geographic expedition activities, which were frequently used in the plan of educational intercessions. This behavior, if analyzed in deepness, may connote an addition in other behaviors such as:
pupils ‘ tolerance in unfamiliar state of affairss,
their willingness to hazard, and
The information of the interviews for the experimental group do non follow with those of the observation program. This disagreement may bespeak a subjective rating by the research worker or the fact that due to the absence in the kindergarten course of study of activities/games based on geographic expedition, pupils are deprived of equal stimulation to develop this specific behavior and the kindergarten instructors are non able to recognize it.
The inquiring of what is normally accepted shows less marked alterations in per centum degrees compared to old behaviors. Harmonizing to the consequences of the interviews, the sensitivity of the pupils in the experimental group to dispute the normally accepted from “ non yet apparent ” became emerging, while the pupils sensitivity in the control group remained non yet apparent at the terminal of the experiment.
The limited visual aspect or even the deficiency of oppugning the normally accepted that was noted, could be interpreted based on the phase of moral pragmatism as described by Piaget for kids of 4 old ages and over ( as quoted in Woodhead et al. , 1999: 199 ) . Specifically for kids of this age, regulations are considered inviolable and their misdemeanor is punished. Besides, research informations reflect the cultural construction of western society, which most of the times rewards obeisance and reprobate the inquiring of society ‘s constructions.
The choice of three research tools helped to increase the scope and perchance the complexness of the research. It was preferred because satisfactory grounds came to spy through triangulation. The study ‘s dependability was increased due to the manner the consequences were analyzed, i.e. through the variables ‘ correlativities. More specifically, it was observed that consequences are non safe when analyzed individually for each variable and their correlativities can give different decisions, complementary, overlapping or even contradictory.
Measuring the methodological analysis in this research we observe that the independent and dependent variables are non incompatible and independent but they increase while feeding one another. The doctrine of educational intercessions ( which are the independent variable ) was directed to the development of creativeness ( which is the dependent variable ) . The relationship of these variables affect the decisions, so although the original hypothesis concerned the influence of music and motion activities in kids ‘s originative thought, the research verified portion of this hypothesis and in peculiar highlighted the positive impact of games aiming creativeness, to the originative heads of preschool age kids.
Measuring the possibility of working this specific research we conclude that the usage of specific schemes for planing educational plans that support kids ‘s creativeness is truly of import. In add-on, an instruction proposal oriented towards creativeness is non considered sufficient for the development of creativeness, but requires besides the instructor ‘s involvement on this affair.
Deductions for Practice
The basic proposal of this research involves the designation of schemes and rules that are proposed as complementary to the development of creativeness. In the design of music and motion activities, playing is proposed as a suited tool for developing kids ‘s creativeness, based on the following techniques:
the usage of brainstorming ;
the usage of imaginary/hypothetical narratives ;
the alternate usage of objects ;
the alternate attack to state of affairss ;
experimenting and seeking ;
covering with debatable state of affairss ;
foretelling causes and effects of a state of affairs ;
and is structured harmonizing to the undermentioned rules:
encourages the look of emotion ;
promotes the kid ‘s alone position ;
strengthens the kid ‘s enterprise ;
encourages the preparation of unusual thoughts and relationships ;
provides psychological security and freedom of look.
However the correct design based on the doctrine and rules of creativeness is non sufficient to advance originative thought and to further originative behaviors. The general doctrine behind the administration and the flow of the educational procedure which creates the ambiance in which this procedure takes topographic point is really of import. Consequently, these schemes in order to work expeditiously must, as stated by John ( 2006 ) and Morin ( 2001 ) , be accompanied by the instructor ‘s competency to:
separate the elements for which the fluctuation or even the divergence from an activity is appropriate ;
operate as a co-investigator and non as a wise man ;
avoid premature unfavorable judgment ;
broaden the range for creativeness look and originality ;
advance each kid ‘s individualism through an individualised attack to instruction.
In this context, as suggested by Treffinger ( 1993: 8-27 ) , increased creativeness, consequences from the find and the sweetening of each kid ‘s particular accomplishments. It is suggested, hence, to promote the find of each kid ‘s personal accomplishments so that the addition of kid ‘s creativeness would be accomplished with his ain manner and non that of the kindergarten instructor.
As respects the execution degree of these trials it is suggested to utilize inquiries about kids ‘s building games to find more accurately the degree of creativeness and bound the possibility for misunderstanding. Most significantly, the construction, content and the assessment procedure should non insulate the socio-cultural factor. The proposal for such a confirmation procedure of how to measure Torrance ‘s trials can uncover information and effectual ways about rating, tailored to each state of affairs, or even indicate the demand for the overall redefinition of the trials.
By and large, any effort to analyze creativeness requires taking into history a assortment of factors and a critical attack to the usage of trials in order to bring forth scientific consequences instead than simplistic.